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Wednesday, May 10, 2006

Shabbos Leniencies Of the Chazon Ish I

The general perception of the Chazon Ish is that he was a major Machmir in a lot of areas of Halachah. A more famous example is his prohibition of using a blech as a valid covering for the stove on Shabbos. There are many, many others.

But there are some interesting Kullos that the Chazon Ish has as well.

These are excerpted from a Sefer called "Daas HaChazon Ish".

(Please consult your Rav before relying on any of this)

A) Kavod Shabbos:

The Chazon Ish held that where there is no Oneg Shabbos, there is no Kavod Shabbos. Therefore, if someone wears a garment in honor of Shabbos but it is difficult for him to wear due to the heat, there is no Kavod Shabbos.

(Rav Nissim Karelitz elucidated this. This does not mean that if he has no Oneg Shabbos in wearing the garment, he will have no fulfillment of Kavod Shabbos. Rather, if he does wear it, he is fulfilling Kavod Shabbos. What the Chazon Ish means is if he takes off the garment, it is not considered doing something in violation of Kavod Shabbos.)

[Note: Compare MiPeninei HaRav by Rav Hershel Schachter (pg. 68), that Rav Soloveitchik once chastised an attendee of a Shiur of his in Boston for not wearing a suit jacket on a particularly hot day when going to Shul. [The fellow had left his jacket in Shul after Shacharis and intended to put it on for Minchah. Rav Soloveitchik felt this improper, even on a hot day])

B) Hatmana of one k'li in another:

The Mishnah Berurah (258:2) writes, quoting the Acharonim, that it is prohibited to place a vessel with a liquid or a food into another vessel which has hot water, where the vessel containing the liquid or food is completely submerged, because of the prohibition of Hatmanah. The Chazon Ish (O.C. 37:32) held that it is not Derech Hatmanah to immerse one Kli in another.

Based on this, according to the Chazon Ish there is no problem to insert a food wrapped in plastic or paper into a pot with food, whether placed into the food or on top of the food. However, when the food is wrapped in aluminum foil, there is some doubt that this may be considered Hatmanah (when placed into the pot or on top of the pot cover), since aluminum foil may be considered a Davar HaMatmin.

Cutting Nails (Erev Shabbos)

C) One need not cut his toenails out of order. The laws as brought down in Orach Chaim 260 apply only to the fingernails. [Rav Chaim Kanievsky explained that this is because the Avudraham, who is the source for this practice, only mentions the hands]

D) The Chazon Ish is quoted as saying that one who removes one fingernail with his teeth does not need to wash his hands. Rav Chaim Kanievsky was unsure whether this was because it was one fingernail or because it was done with the teeth. Rav Seraya Deblitzky felt that in all probability it was because it was done with the teeth, since this is not the normal way to remove nails.

Shabbos Night davening:

E) On Friday night the Chazon Ish would daven Shemoneh Esrei with the Tzibbur and would recite Kerias Shema afterward. The reason for this was that the Chazon Ish spent a long time reciting Shema and he did not want the Tzibbur to have to wait for him.

F) The Mishnah Berurah (268:19) writes that one should be meticulous to recite Vayechulu with the Tzibbur, because this recital is a testimony on the creation of heaven and earth. At the very least, it should be recited with one other person, not alone. The Chazon Ish held that one davening alone need not be Mehader to recite it along with someone else.

Kiddush:

G) One who did not hear the Nun of the word HaGefen has nevertheless been Yotzei since he heard the general topic of the Beracha.

[The Chazon Ish did not lift the cup of Kiddush. He was too weak to do so. (!)]

H) The Chazon Ish told an individual who was informed by his doctors that his diet was restricted to vegetables alone, that regarding Kiddush Bemakom Se'udah, the vegetables that he would eat count as a Seudah. Rav Chaim Kanievsky brought support for this position from the Passuk in Parshas Beshalach (Shemos 16:4) - "Behold I am raining down 'bread' from the heavens", and there the Bnei Yisrael had Man, not bread, and yet the Torah refers to it as bread. Since that was the food they had, it counted as bread. In Massechta Shabbos the Gemara derives from this Passuk that one must eat 3 meals on Shabbos. Hence, since this was their food it was considered a Seudah just like bread.

I) Reading the Haftarah:
The Mishnah Berurah (284:1) writes that when there is no parchment Sefer to read the Haftarah from, the opinion of the Magen Avraham and the Eliya Rabba is to read from a printed Sefer which has the entire book of that particular Navi one is reading from (e.g. the entire Sefer Yeshayahu), and not from a Chumash which has only the segment which is being read.
The Chazon Ish held that when there is no parchment Sefer there is no difference at all between reading from a printed Navi which has the entire Sefer or a Chumash which contains the Haftarah segment. In the Shul where the Chazon Ish davened, if there was no parchment they read from a Chumash.
J) Shnayim Mikra
The Shulchan Aruch (285:2) writes that there is a Mitzvah Min HaMuvchar to complete Shnayim Mikra prior to the meal on Shabbos. The Mishnah Berurah(ibid.,9) writes that the reason is based on the Medrash, where Rebbi tells his sons not to eat bread on Shabbos before completing the Parshah.
The Chazon Ish felt that this Medrash means that Seudah Shelishis should not be eaten prior to completing the Parshah, and the Chazon Ish himself was Machmir to be done before the second meal.
K) Kiddush during the day:
The Chazon Ish would say only the Beracha of Borei Peri HaGefen, with no preamble of Veshamru or Zachor. This was also the custom of the GRA.
L) On Rosh Chodesh and the like, where if one forgets Yaaleh VeYavo, he must repeat Shemoneh Esrei, nevertheless the Shemoneh Esrei in which Yaaleh VeYavo was omitted counts toward the fulfillment of 100 daily Berachos. (See Kehillos Yaakov, Steipler, Berachos Simman 16)
M) The Chazon Ish did not cover the Challos for Seudah Shelishis, as he held this Din applies only to the first two meals.
N) The Chazon Ish held that there is no need to be Machmir like Rabbeinu Tam in terms of the Zman of Motzaei Shabbos. He held one may perform even Melachos De'Oraysa prior to Rabbeinu Tam's Zman.
One whose family custom was to keep the Zman of Rabbeinu Tam was told that he did not even require Hattaras Nedarim to stop keeping this Zman. It seems the Chazon Ish held the GRA's proofs in this matter to be conclusive.

3 Comments:

Blogger Yitzchok Adlerstein said...

The Mishna Berura argues that we must treat virtually all foods as possibly "kalei habishul," and therefore they cannot be placed in a keli sheni.

The Chazon Ish is meikal regarding lemon in tea.

3:44 PM  
Blogger Bari said...

Thanks, Rabbi Adlerstein. I'll try to remember to put that in Shabbos Leniencies of the Chazon Ish II!

6:28 PM  
Anonymous Steve Brizel said...

That was a nice likut of various psakim and hanhagos. RHS always says that you will find many comments of the CI on the MB in which the CI believes that the MB changed the psak hamekubal on a wide range of issues. In addition, while many mistakenly claim that the CO was an inflexible machmir, there are many kulos within the CI on halacha lmaaseh. Here are three of many:

1) Discoloration of the skin suffices for hatafas dam bris.

2) Maalin vlo moridim does not apply because of the fact that we live in a world where most Jew are non-observant. We must approach them with "binds of love" and draw them near to Torah and mitzvos.

3) The MB holds that the dinim of tznius, ervah apply from the age of three . The CI rejects this and posits that this depends on the context and that the outer limit IIRC is nine years of age.

8:53 AM  

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